50 Greatest players of the Professional Era – Classic Rugby Jerseys

This list has been drawn from walesonline.co .uk

I think everyone will disagree with this in some shape or form either through omissions or where the players should be within the Top 50 but very interesting to look through

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50. Martyn Williams (WAL)

Mr Consistency. Man of the Match time and again for club and country. A footballing openside, this popular and highly respected centurion went on three Lions tours.

49. Will Genia (AUS)

One of those players who, at his peak, could win a game single-handedly, either with his own sniping breaks or by putting others into space. A real pocket dynamo scrum-half.

48. Alun Wyn Jones (WAL)

Now with 100 Test caps to his name, the Ospreys second row has grown into an inspirational and talismanic figure and would feature in most people’s world team right now.

47. Julian Savea (NZ)

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Yes, I know he’s only been playing international rugby for three years, but the impact he has made in that time demands inclusion, with 38 tries in 41 Tests. A modern-day Lomu.

46. Scott Quinnell (WAL)

After a short spell in league, returned to Union when the game went open. One of the most effective ball-carrying No 8s in the world, he was like a one-man pack for Wales at times.

45. Tana Umaga (NZ)

A great reader of the game, the Hurricanes centre was the focal point of the New Zealand back-line for years and a hugely successful skipper, winning 19 out of 21 games at the helm.

44. Gary Teichmann (SA)

This Rhodesian-born No 8 captained South Africa to a record 17 Test winning streak in the late 1990s, leading by example, before launching the Bok and Amber revolution at Newport.

43. Rob Howley (WAL)

Rob Howley

Shone brightly despite spending much of his Test career behind a beaten Welsh pack. Confirmed status as a world class scrum-half with the Lions and won Wasps the Heineken Cup.

42. Will Greenwood (ENG)

A tall, stylish and astute centre who had a particular penchant for scoring tries against Wales. Two Lions tours, but his finest hour was lifting the World Cup with England in 2003.

41. Joe Rokocoko (NZ)

The Fijian-born wing boasts a remarkable strike rate, having scored 47 tries in 68 Tests. When you’ve got speed and strength, you’ve always got a chance and he had both in bucketloads.

40. Bakkies Botha (SA)

Bakkies Botha

The second row enforcer in South Africa’s World Cup winning team of 2007, this was a man you didn’t mess around with. Rounded off his career with three European Cup wins with Toulon.

39. Carl Hayman (NZ)

We just hadn’t seen a tight-head prop like him before. At 6ft 4ins and 18st 13lbs, the Otago powerhouse was a man mountain in the All Blacks pack ahead of a lucrative move to Europe.

38. Juan-Martin Fernandez-Lobbe (ARG)

Look for the ball and the Pumas back rower is certain to be somewhere in the vicinity. He’s either scrabbling for it on the deck, plucking it out of the air, fielding it deep or carrying it on the charge.

37. Thierry Dusautoir (FRA)

David Rogers/Getty Images

Produced one of the individual performance of modern times when he made an eye-popping 38 tackles and scored a try in France’s 2007 World Cup win over New Zealand. World player of year in 2011.

36. Jean de Villiers (SA)

A hard-running centre who has also shown himself able to do all the pretty stuff. The king of the interception, he scored 27 Test tries and proved a fine leader of his country. On his way to Leicester.

35. Ma’a Nonu (NZ)

Known initially more for his braided hair and eyeliner, he added passing and kicking to his raw line-breaking power to become one of the great centres, capping his Test career with that superb World Cup final try.

34. Adam Jones (WAL)

His record speaks for itself. The scrum cornerstone of three Grand Slam winning teams and the Test tight-head on two Lions tours. A true legend of Welsh rugby who has also been one of the game’s great characters.

33. Conrad Smith (NZ)

New Zealand star Conrad Smith

Nicknamed The Snake because of his ability to slither through the smallest of gaps and strike with a sudden burst of speed. Brought fluidity to the All Blacks midfield with his intelligent passing and vision.

32. Scott Gibbs (WAL)

Who can forget this? Scott Gibbs' last-minute match-winning try to deny England the Grand Slam at Wembley in 1999. Magnificent

Responsible for one of the great moments in Welsh rugby history, with his Wembley try against England in 1999, and a seminal Lions image with his dumping of Os du Randt two years earlier. A wrecking ball centre.

31. Justin Marshall (NZ)

Some players talk the talk, some walk the walk. Justin Marshall could do both. Backed up his chirping by running the show for the All Blacks in an 81-cap Test career ahead of a high-profile spell with the Ospreys.

30. Percy Montgomery (SA)

Percy Montgomery
Percy Montgomery

Test days appeared to be over when he joined Newport in 2002, but the move actually re-ignited his international career and he went on to be the top points scorer at the 2007 World Cup, excelling at 15 as the ‘Boks took the trophy.

29. Doug Howlett (NZ)

A star sprinter as a schoolboy, once clocked a personal best of 10.94 seconds for 100 metres. Used his speed to great effect in his rugby career, scoring a record 49 tries for the All Blacks. A wing with a high work rate and strong defence.

28. Stephen Larkham (AUS)

Australia attack coach Stephen Larkham

A converted full-back, the elegant Larkham proved a worthy successor to Michael Lynagh as the Wallaby outside-half. Pulled the strings to great effect during Australia’s 1999 World Cup winning campaign.

27. Gethin Jenkins (WAL)

Huw Evans Picture Agency

Has revolutionised the role of the loose-head prop. Like an extra back rower with his ability over the ball and his defensive work-rate. The medal haul for club and country says it all. Wales’ most capped player of all time.

Related: Cardiff Blues prop Gethin Jenkins on Harlequins, turning 35 and why he had to buy his own birthday cake

26. Matt Giteau (AUS)

Matt Giteau of Australia kicks down field

Blessed with enormous natural ability, has been able to turn his hand to scrum-half, fly-half and centre. Test career seemed over when he headed off to win three European Cups with Toulon but returned to sparkle at this autumn’s World Cup.

25. Jason Robinson (ENG)

Jason Robinson
Jason Robinson

Known as Billy Whizz, this former rugby league star proved a hugely successful convert to Union. A lethal runner from full-back or wing, he was a nightmare to mark in one-on-one situations. Had a knack of scoring memorable tries on the big stage.

24. George Smith (AUS)

The scourge of the Lions at the age of 20 and more than 100 caps to his name for the Wallabies before he was 30. An absolute pest and nuisance at the breakdown, made a living out of slowing down or stealing opposition ball. Still going strong with Wasps.

23. Richard Hill (ENG)

Richard Hill
Richard Hill

The ultimate players’ player. Did all the unseen, grafting work and just got on with his job in unassuming fashion, putting his body on the line. Able to excel right across the back row, he was a pivotal figure on two Lions trips and an England World Cup winner.

22. Christian Cullen (NZ)

Just about the most exciting player in the world game for a few years in the late 1990s. Nicknamed the Paekakariki Express, he had a remarkable strike rate, scoring 46 tries in just 58 Tests for New Zealand, with his elusive running and pace from full-back ripping sides apart.

21. Schalk Burger (SA)

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One of the most physical flankers in the game, he was dubbed a “threshing machine” by former Springboks coach Nick Mallett. Came back from injury and life-threatening illness to enjoy an immense international swansong at the recent World Cup. A carrying king.

20. Lawrence Dallaglio (ENG)

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Went from being a schoolboy chorister to one of the most formidable physical presences in the game of rugby. Had it all in his prime – pace, power, aggression, pride and a steely mind-set. A Lions series winner, a World Cup winner and a trophy magnet with Wasps.

19. John Smit (SA)

One of the great captains of the professional era. Led South Africa a record 83 times in 111 Tests, guiding them to victory at the 2007 World Cup, a series triumph over the Lions in 2009 and two Tri-Nations titles. A teak hard performer in his own right, mainly at hooker, but also at prop.

18. Fourie du Preez (SA)

South Africa's Fourie Du Preez runs in to score the winning try against Wales
South Africa’s Fourie Du Preez runs in to score the winning try against Wales

Any aspiring scrum-half should watch this man in action. A master tactician, with a great kicking game, he was the lynchpin of the South African team that won the World Cup and defeated the Lions. Then came back from injury to excell once again at the 2015 global tournament, breaking Welsh hearts.

17. David Pocock (Australia)

David Pocock has been Australia's star man this World Cup by some distance, says Delme Parfitt

A worthy successor to Richie McCaw as the most influential player in world rugby, either at 7 or 8. There is simply no-one better in the game over the ball. He is just perfectly built for the role and when he locks himself onto a tackled player, there is no moving him. A fascinating character off the field too.

16. Zinzan Brooke (NZ)

A dynamic ball carrier, this Kiwi No 8 also had better kicking and handling skills than some fly-halves. Heaped the ultimate indignity on England in the 1995 World Cup semi-final, landing an audacious drop goal from 40 metres after they had already been demolished by four-try Jonah Lomu.

15. Paul O’Connell (IRE)

Alun Wyn Jones and Paul O’Connell on Lions duty in 2013

Munster fans will tell you that Superman wears Paul O’Connell pyjamas! The Irish second row was certainly blessed with special rugby powers having been one of the world’s leading tight forwards for more than a decade. A three-times Lions who captained the tour of South Africa in 2009.

14. Victor Matfield (SA)

Dubbed the best centre in South Africa for his love of running with the ball in midfield, this ultra athletic second row has also been a supreme lineout technician. Man of the Match in the 2007 World Cup final, he came out of retirement to serve the Springboks once more after a three year break.

13. George Gregan (AUS)

A talkative figure on the field, was responsible for one of the great on-field jibes, taunting the All Blacks with the words “Four more years” during the dying moments of Australia’s 2003 World Cup semi-final victory. Born in Zambia, this complete scrum-half won a whopping 139 caps.

12. Bryan Habana (SA)

Bryan Habana

Anyone who races cheetahs in his spare time is likely to be reasonably rapid and the Jo’burg-born speedster has scorched his way to 64 Test tries – joint second with David Campese on the all-time list – including a record-equalling eight to help the ‘Boks win the 2007 World Cup. Further trophy triumphs followed with Toulon and he’s still a razor-sharp presence as he proved this autumn by drawing level with Jonah Lomu at the top of the pile with 15 career World Cup tries.

11. Martin Johnson (ENG)

Action Images/Andrew Budd

A player who led by example and the kind of man you would always want alongside you in the trenches when the chips are down. Would never ask someone to do something he wouldn’t do himself. Holds the unique distinction of having captained the Lions on two tours, including the triumphant 1997 trip to South Africa, while he will always be remembered as the man presented with the 2003 World Cup, which England won in Sydney. As well as being an inspirational leader, the Leicester lock was also a formidable player in his own right. A rock like presence in the tight, whose rugby motto was if in doubt, go forward.

10. Jonny Wilkinson (ENG)

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In some ways, you could argue Wilkinson has been the epitome of the professional era. He has set new standards in terms of dedication and an almost obsessive pursuit of perfection. He’s also been one of the great match winners of the era and one of the game’s greatest ever accumulators of points. In fact, only Dan Carter has scored more in Test rugby, with Wilkinson having garnered 1,246 during his 97 caps for England and the Lions. His finest hour, of course, came in 2003, when he slotted the drop goal that won the World Cup. The fact he landed it with his weaker right foot speaks volumes for his hours and hours of diligent practice. Bowed out on a high, earning two more trophies with Toulon.

9. John Eales (AUS)

Legendary Aussie captain John Eales lifts the trophy in 1999

Nicknamed “Nobody” because “Nobody’s perfect” and his record is certainly pretty close to perfection. One of a select band of players to have won two World Cups, skippering Australia to glory in Cardiff in 1999. Captained the Wallabies 55 times during his 86-cap Test career, establishing himself as one of the most respected figures in the game. He was also very much a one of a kind as a player. It’s hard to believe now, but he scored 173 points in international rugby. An agile, athletic second row lineout ace, he was also a top-class place-kicker, who landed 65 Test shots at goal. A real ambassador for the game and a great player.

8. Shane Williams (WAL)

Everyone remembers his side-stepping magic and wing wizardry, but it’s easy to forget just how hard Shane Williams worked in order to be able to hold his own physically on the international stage. Having burst onto the scene in exciting fashion, he spent two years in the Test wilderness amid concerns over his size. But having grabbed his chance at the 2003 World Cup, he worked diligently to complement his God-given ability by working on his physique, emerging as the greatest Welsh player of his generation. Named world player of the year in 2008, he ended up with 60 Test tries, leaving him fourth on the all-time list behind behind Daisuke Ohata, David Campese and Bryan Habana. He was The Great Entertainer.

7. Tim Horan (AUS)

When he made his Test debut for Australia against New Zealand in 1989, he impressed his opposite number, Joe Stanley, so much that Stanley gave him his jersey. The Kiwi knew talent when he saw it.

After emerging as one of the young stars of the 1991 World Cup, Horan returned from a horrendous knee injury to be player of the tournament eight years later as he lifted the Webb Ellis trophy for a second time. Possessed pace, balance, great ball skills and courage, with his attacking prowess, formidable defence and play-making ability marking him out as one of the finest centres the game of rugby has ever seen. Scored 40 Test tries at a rate of one every other game.

6. Sergio Parisse (ITA)

Sergio Parisse suffered a thigh injury in Italy's warm-up match with Wales

There’s no such thing as a one-man team in rugby, but it’s got pretty close to that with Italy at times over the past decade. That one man, of course, is their talismanic skipper Sergio Parisse.

The Argentinian-born No 8 has been a key figure for the Azzurri since making an eye-catching debut as an 18-year-old against New Zealand in 2002. Big and strong, he has the size to make holes in any defence, but also has hands to die for and the subtlety to execute passes out of the back of his hand as though he were a fly-half. Add to that an astute brain for the game and an absolute refusal to bend the knee and you have pretty much the complete rugby player.

5. Joost van der Westhuizen (SA)

Joost van der Westhuizen
Joost van der Westhuizen

One of the game’s great competitors on the field, the former Springboks scrum-half has carried that attitude into his off-field battles since hanging up his boots. You only have to watch the legendary Living With Lions video from the South African tour of 1997 to understand just how highly he was rated by the opposition and what a threat he was seen as.

Aggressive and fearless, he was arguably the finest running scrum-half the game has ever seen, scoring 38 tries in 89 Tests, a remarkable tally for a No 9. Despite standing 6ft 1ins tall, he was able to find and penetrate the tiniest gaps in opposing defences. An inspirational force as a player, he has inspired people once again in recent years with his fight against motor neurone disease.

4. Jonah Lomu (NZ)

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Jonah Lomu scores a try against Ireland at the 1995 Rugby World Cup in South Africa

Has one man ever done more to popularise the game of rugby than Jonah? When he burst onto the scene at the 1995 World Cup, it was like a meteor landing from outer space. We had never seen anything like him before and his incredible feats grabbed the attention of folk who had never previously been interested in the sport.

The physical impact Lomu had on the 1995 World Cup was beyond the effect of any other player in the history of the game. He scored seven tries in 1995, including four in an unforgettable one-man demolition job of England in the semi. Lomu went one better in 1999 to finish with a record 15 tournament tries, before going on to show his dignity with his brave fight against debilitating kidney disease.

One of a kind and the impression he left on so many lives was vividly illustrated by the reaction to his death earlier this week. Rest in peace big man.

Related: ‘I will be the best mum to our gorgeous sons’… Jonah Lomu’s wife’s heartbreaking message as fundraising page crashes charity website

3. Brian O’Driscoll (IRE)

Brian O'Driscoll after Ireland won the 2014 Six Nations title

One of the most feared players in the game, O’Driscoll was also one of the most consistent. His 141 Test caps, including eight for the Lions, place him second on the all-time list behind Richie McCaw. Ireland’s record try scorer with 46 touchdowns, O’Driscoll also led his country more times than any other player and his brilliant defensive qualities and dazzling attacking skills made him a threat all over the field.

Provided some magical memories with his hat-trick against France in Paris in 2000 and his wonderful solo try for the Lions against Australia in Brisbane the following year which evokes memories of the ‘Waltzing O’Driscoll’ song that epitomised the 2001 tour. Holds the Six Nations record for most tries with 26 and was chosen Player of the Tournament in the 2006, 2007 and 2009, leading Ireland to one Grand Slam and three Triple Crowns. Europe’s finest.

2. Dan Carter (NZ)

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Dan Carter can’t contain his excitement after the All Blacks are crowned champions

Dan the man. The greatest back of the professional era, his record speaks for itself. Way out in front as the leading points scorer in international rugby history, with 1,598 points from his 112 caps. Throw in a further 1,708 points for the Crusaders and the fly-half’s impact on the game cannot be emphasised enough.

A prolific goal-kicker, a wonderful silky runner and a masterful controller, he possesses the lot and has been a genuine match-winner at the highest level. The maestro made his Test debut against Wales in Hamilton in 2003, playing at inside centre and giving a sign of what was to come by scoring 20 points. It was also against Wales in 2010 that he kicked a penalty from halfway at the Millennium Stadium to overtake Jonny Wilkinson as the world’s top point scorer.

Related: New Zealand stars pay tribute to Jerry Collins as they take Rugby World Cup trophy to the flanker’s grave

Ross Land/Getty Images

He averages almost 15 points a Test, the highest of any player in history who has scored more than 500 points. One of his greatest performances came in the second Test against the Lions in 2005, when he outshone Wilkinson in their fly-half battle to lead New Zealand to an emphatic 48-18 triumph in Wellington. He scored two tries, five penalties, and four conversions and ended the match with 33 points, easily eclipsing the previous record of 18.

There was to be injury-enforced World Cup frustration in 2007 and 2011, but he ended his Test career on the perfect note as he produced a Man of the Match display in this year’s final to guide the All Blacks to glory. A fitting farewell.

1. Richie McCaw (NZ)

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Richie McCaw

Who else? You only have to look at the 49 names below Richie McCaw on this list to recognise what a legend the Kiwi flanker has proved over the last 15 years. His stats are quite remarkable. He earned a world-record 148 caps for the All Blacks, winning 131 of those games and captaining his country 111 times. Perhaps my favourite stat is he has played in 32 per cent of New Zealand’s Test match victories since 1903!

When he first emerged from Otaga Boys’ High, he was far from the finished product, as Steve Hansen confirms. “He was good at pinching the ball, but he couldn’t catch, couldn’t pass and couldn’t run,” recalls the Kiwi coach. “But he had a massive desire to be good. He wanted to be good at everything.”

Richie McCaw and Steve Hansen at the press conference
Richie McCaw and Steve Hansen at the press conference

Complementing his natural prowess over the ball, McCaw worked and worked at his game, adding handling skills and dynamic running to turn himself into the complete openside. Unflinchingly brave, he has remained a quite outstanding exponent at the breakdown throughout the career, while also possessing the athleticism and footballing ability to serve as the classic link man and the ball carrying dynamism to consistently break the line. He had the lot.

Add to that his leadership and you have the perfect package. Lifting the 2011 World Cup in his backyard was a fitting tribute to one of the greatest ever All Blacks, but he went on to secure true legendary status as he continued for four more years, breaking record after record and uniquely hoisting the Webb Ellis trophy for a second time. It was to be a perfect ending not just to his international career but also his playing career, as he confirmed his retirement from the game this week.

He could easily have taken up a lucrative contract in France, but that’s not his style. “I really had no desire to play overseas. To go and play rugby just to earn a fat cheque really didn’t spin my wheels. If I felt I could continue to play, I would stay right here in New Zealand.” Classy until the end. Richie McCaw – the single most influential player I have ever seen play the game of rugby and my No 1.

 

Six Nations – Wales bank on chop tackle to cut down rampant Billy Vunipola

Taken from The Times Newspaper 12/3/16

England’s opponents today have spent five years honing a special weapon that could bring the bulldozing No 8 to a shuddering halt, writes John Westerby

Top of Wales’s to-do list at Twickenham today will be to cut Billy Vunipola down to size. The England No 8 has been standing tall as the outstanding ball-carrier in the RBS Six Nations Championship this year, looming large in the thoughts of Shaun Edwards, the Wales defence coach, but England’s opponents are confident they possess the instrument to succeed, where other teams have failed, in scything Vunipola down.

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Their weapon of choice will be the chop tackle, devised by Edwards before the 2011 World Cup, honed since then by Dan Lydiate to the extent that it has become one of the most feared defensive weapons in the game. “Dan has become world-renowned for his chop tackle,” Sam Warburton, the Wales captain, said. “People have started to copy him and teams have adapted their style to play against him, but he’s hugely influential.”

Here is how the chop tackle works, when executed to perfection. From a low position, Lydiate, the blind-side flanker, launches himself horizontally towards the knees of the onrushing attacker, lower than for a conventional tackle, his arms whipping around the ankles. As the ball-carrier’s legs are taken from beneath him, he falls headlong to the ground. He goes down quickly, too, like a tree being felled, the speed of the fall impairing his ability to present the ball to his team-mates.

And the reward? Precious milliseconds for Lydiate’s team-mates to exploit. Warburton, Lydiate’s hunting partner, will have anticipated the chop and made it his business to reach the tackle area first, ahead of the England back row, ready to pilfer the turnover ball that could set Wales on the attack. Lydiate wounds, then Warburton moves in for the kill. “Everybody knows the qualities of Dan Lydiate as a world-class tackler,” Robin McBryde, the forwards coach, said. “Then there’s the ability of Sam to get in over the ball and feed off that. With the workrate of Taulupe [Faletau] as well, it’s the balance of that back row.”

Chopping is at its most effective against powerful, top-heavy ball-carriers, such as Vunipola and James Haskell, the England No 7. The tactic was devised by Edwards in preparation for the pool matches in the 2011 World Cup, when Wales found themselves drawn to face South Africa, Samoa and Fiji, a relentless battering against the game’s most physical ball-carrying teams. Edwards saw that the bigger they are, the quicker they fall. “It’s about trying to get players to the deck as quick as we can,” Lydiate said.

The same rationale applies against England today. Wales are not smaller in many areas, but they are one and a half stone lighter per man in the back row. They will back themselves, though, to be quicker to the breakdown than Haskell, Vunipola and Chris Robshaw.

In some ways, the chop tackle is merely an expression of some rudimentary defence: the bigger they are, the lower you go. This is a time, though, when defence coaches are involved in an arms race to find new ways of stopping ever bigger athletes, an age of choke tackles and soak tackles, and over the past five years Lydiate has elevated his specialism to something approaching an art form.

It helps that he is blessed with a natural tenacity and strength, developed in his early years on the family farm in Llandrindod Wells. Leigh Jones, the former head coach at Newport Gwent Dragons, watched Lydiate making his way in the game and now, as a respected defence coach, who worked for Japan at the World Cup under Eddie Jones, he has seen him become one of the world’s best. “Dan’s always been phenomenally strong and incredibly brave,” Jones said. “It wasn’t always the sort of strength that translated into the gym, but you could tell he was from farming stock because he has that functional strength that showed up in the tackle.”

It can be thrilling to watch Lydiate launching himself into action. As he sizes up his target around the fringes, he is coiled like a sprinter, one hand on the ground, one knee almost down, ready to propel himself horizontally towards his quarry. His shoulder is aiming just above the knee, his arms to cut away from the top of the socks, his eyes trained firmly on his opponent’s feet. Conditioning work has given Lydiate formidably powerful shoulders and biceps, equipping his arms to withstand the impact from an opponent’s legs.

“He has to plant your feet early to make the chop tackle, so the risk is that you’re vulnerable to a late bit of footwork and that’s what Eddie [Jones] will be telling his players,” Jones said. “But Dan’s become a great reader of where an attacker is going.”

In recent weeks, though, there has been a complication for Lydiate as his technique has been questioned by referees. Playing for the Ospreys against Edinburgh last month, he was sent to the sin-bin for failing to use his arms in a chop tackle, when he had gone low and caught the ankles of Anton Bresler. Lydiate seemed to have been harshly dealt with, although he was more culpable against France a fortnight ago, when he did not wrap his arms quickly enough around Guilhem Guirado and gave away a penalty near his own posts.

“I’ve just got to make sure now that I pay extra special attention when I go in that I’m using my arms,” Lydiate said.

Today, his attention turns to bringing Vunipola crashing back to earth. When the England No 8 attempts to build up steam around the fringes, watch Lydiate crouch, narrow his gaze and launch himself horizontally. If Lydiate’s aim is true, the green shoots of England’s revival will have been abruptly chopped away, just as they were starting to flourish.

The truth about England’s World Cup humiliation against Wales

Special report by Owen Slot

From The Times Newspaper 10th March 2016

Saturday brings us back to where it all happened, where the blood was shed. It was Australia who delivered the killer blow, knocking England out of the World Cup, but it was Wales who did the real damage.

We return to another instalment of England v Wales at Twickenham with recent history significantly influencing the present. We will never know what would have happened had Chris Robshaw gone for that kick, whether Stuart Lancaster would still be in the job, whether the Eddie era may never have started. Hey, it’s unlikely, but England could have won that World Cup.

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Nearly six months on, a rummage through the ashes of England’s World Cup campaign reveals the following:

• When Warren Gatland, the Wales head coach, and his assistants, heard the team that England had selected, they were astonished. They felt the pressure was getting to England.

• The All Blacks had long been tracking England, in the likelihood the two teams would meet in the knockout stages. When they heard the England team, there was a similar sense of amazement.

• The England management felt that they were refereed out of the game. Before the World Cup was over, they had received notification from Joël Jutge, the World Cup head of referees acknowledging that four of the penalties against England were awarded in error.

• After the game, the England players did not even feel physically spent. They had experienced more intense training sessions. The stop-start nature of the game had never allowed their fitness and conditioning to play a part.

England’s team selection remains the controversy. Lancaster had an injury to Jonathan Joseph, at No 13, to cover; his solution was to change completely the 10-12-13. George Ford was dropped, Owen Farrell came in at No 10 with Sam Burgess and Brad Barritt at 12 and 13.

The All Blacks’ fear had been that England were stumbling towards their best back division. Their concern was that Henry Slade was the next man in and that, by the knockout rounds, England would settle on what they saw as the dream-team combination of Ford-Slade-Joseph. When England went concertedly in the other direction, they were delighted.

In the England camp, in the lead-up to the game, even some of the players were concerned about where the tries were going to come from. Lancaster, though, bore in mind a training game when Farrell-Burgess-Slade had carved up Ford-Luther Burrell-Joseph. He also saw the yardage Ford had conceded in his soak-tackles the previous weekend against Fiji. Farrell-Burgess would, he said, be the hardest selection decision of his life. To this day, he is defined by it.

For all the controversy, though, that selection was no failure. Farrell was one of England’s best players that night; Burgess did his job.

The most damaging man on the pitch for England was Jérôme Garcès, the French referee. England were dominant in the set piece and controlled the game for the first 50 minutes but they could not build a big lead. Wales had one threatening break in the first half — Scott Williams caught Burgess out of position defensively — and when Mike Brown tackled him and competed for the ball, he was penalised.

This was one of the penalties Jutge would later clarify was a mistake. Yet Dan Biggar, the Wales fly half, snaffled three points. That was how Wales managed to hang in the game.

“Never in my life had I been so nervous in the build-up to a game,” Biggar recalls. “But when I got to the ground, the nerves melted away.” Indeed, Biggar did not miss anything.

Garcès’s whistle did not hit England only on the scoreboard. England’s conditioning programme had been based on stamina and high tempo; they wanted a long ball-in-play time to run oppositions into the ground. However, Garcès never gave them the chance. A good ball-in-play time is more than 40 minutes; that night they got 34 minutes.

The momentum started to shift around the hour-mark. There was an England maul from which Wales defended and gained a turnover. From the ref mike, you could hear Gareth Davies, the Wales No 9, exhorting his team-mates, telling them: “That’s a game-changer.” Davies still recalls it. “I remember thinking we were in a better place. A lot of their forwards were blowing, a few of them were on the floor, struggling a bit.”

England deny they were remotely struggling. The only thing they could not contain was the psychology of a momentum swing.

Lancaster is widely criticised for taking off the very man who he is criticised for putting on it — Burgess. And his substitution certainly failed. The thinking was sound — Ford for Burgess gave England two kickers, and Wales had already exposed Burgess in defence — but it meant that Jamie Roberts immediately ran at Ford and had the same success as the Fijians. Wales’ confidence grew further.

Their miracle try — scored by Gareth Davies — followed. Then Brown conceded another penalty (another one Jutge confirmed was in error) and England were chasing a game they should have closed out. The contest is crystallised in the 77th minute: that penalty, Robshaw’s decision, the safety of the draw versus the gamble of the lineout.

The decision not to kick for goal still haunts England. Before the game, it had been agreed that although a victory was the priority, the draw was not a failure. Robshaw gambled on the win and later acknowledged that he got this wrong.

The reason the decision to go for the win was particularly ballsy was that Geoff Parling, the England lineout captain, had done his analysis of Wales and found that they were outstanding at defending the driving maul. He could not find in the previous two years a single try conceded.

The reason Parling has been criticised for calling the lineout to Robshaw at the front was because the front is easiest to drive back into touch. This, however, does Parling an injustice. He called the “shift drive” lineout to the front, the intention being that the front man sucks in the maul defence, but immediately shifts the ball out for the drive to form away from the majority of defenders.

A decent plan. It was undone because Robshaw was being driven backwards before he had hit the ground — which is illegal — and so the shift never happened. Of all the refereeing decisions that went against England, this was the costliest. The big gamble failed. It should have won England another penalty. Instead it saved Wales the game.

The ghastly silence of the England dressing room afterwards was broken by the sound of Welsh celebration; down the corridor, Welsh players and management belted out Lawr Ar Lan y Mor. The English felt mentally exhausted but never physically so.

The singing continued all the way down the M4 to Wales. At 3am, back at their hotel, it stopped; cryotherapy before bed — such is the way of the modern professional. The World Cup, though, was dying for England. They would never sleep well again.